Project Background

The Subject

Solar Radiation Modification (SRM) strategies aim to limit global warming by reducing the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface (reflecting sunlight or increasing how much heat escapes back into space).

There are mixed opinions on experimental research on SRM

Some are concerned that SRM research could weaken political resolve for climate action by diverting attention and resources away from vital efforts to reduce emissions. SRM has been criticised as a techno-centric approach that does not address the root causes of the climate crisis and limits potential socio-economic co-benefits.

There are also concerns about the undesirable deployment of SRM technologies in ways that are potentially harmful and undemocratic.

Others view SRM as offering a chance to limit some of the harms of our warming planet.

SRM could reduce global temperatures and extreme heat events, decrease fluctuations to rainfall patterns, preserve ice and cold regions, and protect natural systems*.

*The limited research and public deliberation done to date does not allow us to state with high confidence what the exact outcomes of SRM deployment might be. This is why confidence in the real-world feasibility of overall beneficial deployments (and their desirability) is low.


Some argue against SRM in any scenario, while others support research including field experimentation. A third group calls for balance and a thorough consideration of the risks, opportunities to reduce risks and potential benefits.

Our Approach

The European Union has asked for support in examining the conditions for research on SRM. The Co-CREATE project will develop and propose – jointly with stakeholders – conditions for, and elements of, a possible governance framework for SRM research including experiments in the European Research Area. It aims to support decisions on whether or not, and under which circumstances, SRM research and experiments may be warranted from scientific and societal viewpoints.

The project includes an extensive co-creation approach with experts, stakeholders, and rightsholders — including marginalised and affected communities, such as indigenous peoples in the Arctic and communities across the Global South. Critical and productive engagement will ensure that project outputs are anchored in a diversity of voices, cultural contexts, and value-systems — reflecting the grappling of society with this complex and contentious issue.

Co-CREATE objectives

  1. Clarity on the key dimensions of SRM experiments, including the potential and risks of SRM deployment.
  2. Clear definitions of SRM, as well as clarity on the suitability of present European Research Area regulations and their limitations.
  3. Clarity on the conditions for robust SRM research governance, evaluation frameworks, and principles and guidelines.
  4. An inclusive expert and stakeholder dialogue process